Реферат: Еconomic theory


1. The birth of economic theory and its development

2. Main article: History of Economics

3.Areas of study


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5.Language and reasoning

6.Development of economic thought

7. The system of economic relations



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In this work I will consider the notion of economic theory. This is a very important and complex question. But I will try to analise it and answer this question more completely. In the process of all life people face creation, obtaining, consumption and the exchange of various goods and services.

Economics is an area of activities of people, as a result they create, purchase, distribute and consume wealth for the diversified needs, as for themself, so for society.

An economic theory as science (systematized knowledge about the essence of economics) appeared in 17-18 centuries, in the period of the formation of capitalism.

1. The birth of economic theory and its development.

Theory of economics was created and is developed by the economists of different schools and directions. Its definition are very different. The most general definition: Economic theory is a science about the bases of the economic life of society. And economic life is an activity of people connected with ensuring of the material conditions of their life.

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The theory of economics was born in a few stages:

- The scientific thought of ancientness (Platon, Aristotel and others);

- Stage of mercantilismes (the wealth of society is determined by the volumes of foreign trade);

- Stage of physiocratismes (the wealth of society is determined by the levels of development of agrucultures);

- Classic economics theory (Smith, Rikardo, Petti).

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- Stage bourgeoisly-economics theory (Malkus, Sei, Bastiya).

- Marksists or proletarian economic theory (Marks, Engels, Lenin).

- The end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries is characteristed by the row of scientific economics schools.

Any society encounter by the limited quantity of economic resources. But the needs of people constantly grow. That is why there exists a matter of the rational using of these resources. The subject of studies of economics theory is on the first place in economics relations between people in the process of manufacturing, distributions, exchange and consumption.

Economics theory studies the sphere of manufacturing and the distributions of profits in limited resources.

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Economics theory also studies the motion of economic life - tendencies in the development of prices, manufacturing, unemployment.

The purposes of economic theory: economic growth, complete employment, economic efficiency, economic disengagement, the fair distribution of incomes, economic ensuring, commercial balance and so on, and so on.

2.Main article: History of Economics

Although discussions about production and distribution have a long history, economics in its modern sense is conventionally dated from the publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Smith is also the founder of economics. In this work Smith defines the subject in practical terms:

Political economy, considered as a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator, proposes two distinct objects: first, to supply a plentiful revenue or product for the people, or, more properly, to enable them to provide such a revenue or subsistence for themselves; and secondly, to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue sufficient for the public services. It proposes to enrich both the people and the sovereign.

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