Реферат: Английский язык (11 класс)

TRADITIONS & CUSTOMS OF GREAT BRITIAN .

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions.In Britian traditions play more importaint part in the life of the people than in some other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres are closed on Sundays no letters are delivered only a few Sunday papers are publshed. To this day English families prefer cotage houses with gardens to flats in a modern house with central heeting.English people like gardens.Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement

painted green (in imitation of grass) and a box of flowers. In English houses the fire-place has always been the centre of interest in a room.For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire and

watch the dancing flames.Fire places are decorated with woodworks,there is a painting or a mirror over it.Above the fire there is usually a shelf with a clock and some photographs. Holydays are especially rich in old traditions and are different incotland,Wales and England.Christmas is a great english national holyday and in Scotland it is not kept at all exeept by clerks in banks,all the shops and factories are working.But 6 days later on the New Year's Eve the

Scots begin to enjoy themselves.People invite their friends to their houses and sit the old year out and the new year in.In England on new Year's Eve a

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lot of people go to Trafalgar Square,at midnight,they all cross their arms join hands and sing.People have parties too,they drink toarts to the New

Year Children are happy to have presents.

Four times a year the offices and banks in Britain are closed on Monday. These public holidays are known as Bank Holidays.The British like to spend

holidays out of the town in the open air.They go to the sea-side or to amusements parks. Londoners often visit the Zoo,outside London they take their families to Hamsted Heath ['hнmstid'[email protected]] a large natural park too.There is usually a big fair with many different amusements for children merry-go-round,swings puppet shows,bright baloons.

One must also speak about such holidays ass All Fools Day,Hallowe'en Bonfire Night,St.Valentines Day and such tradition as Eisteddfod (a festival

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of which culture).

SCIENC E IN OUR LIFE

Today we see the world in which social,industrial and political order has been greatly influenced by science.The development of science has increased man's know-ledge of nature. Modern experimental science began about 400 year ago.Man learned to use the energy of fire water.Later man made steaw serve him.Nowdays man uses thermonuclear energy and that of autimatter. I'd like to dwell on electronics as not a day passes without the apearnce of a new eletronic device.The first great progress in electronics came with the invention of the vacuum tube or valve in 1904.it made broad casting possible.the development of electronics during World War II gave us radars

and electronic computers. The first general purpose computer for scientific use was invented in

1949.Today computers have become common they can do fantastic things. Computer can condukt experiments in places which are too dangerous for

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people.Some computers are used in carves and mines to replace workers.Besides thay can be designed for special purposes. Thay can solve mathimatical

problems,make bank aubuts,play chess.New supercomputers solve problems in many branches of industry,science and culture.They are videly used in submarine navigation and in modern hospital.Now much is being done to create artifical intellect.Science has brought in to being a new atomic technologies.Elektric enginearing and radio enginearin have been created in the some way.

Science and technology have acheeved great progress in spase research.There have been space flights,the launching of interplanetary stations in the

direction of Mars,Radar contacts with the planets Mercury and Venus.Science enters own flats.Many people have already forgotten what the world was like

before television.several generations of children have grown up with TV as a baby-sitter,teacher and companion. A lot of kitchens in our flats are so well equipped that they look like a control room.We are so used to all these that we can't (emmigenc) our life

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without science.

The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland issituated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands,Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Theirtotal area is over 244 000 square kilometres.The United Kingdom is one of the world's smaller countries. Itspopulation is over 57 million. About 80 percent of the population is urban.The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales,Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff,Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England,Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everydayspeech Great Britain is used in the meaning of the United Kingdom ofGreat Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK. is London.The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Seaand the British Channel. The *western coast of Great Britain is washedby the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north ofScotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. The South, whichhas beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north andwest of England are mountainous, but the eastern, central and south-eastern parts of England are a vast plain. Mountains are not very high.Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lotof rivers iri Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is thelongest rive?, while the Thames is the deepest and the most importantoae. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the GulfStream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the wholeyear round.The UK. is a highly developed industrial country. It produces andexports machinery, electronics, textile. One of the chief industries ofthe country is shipbuilding. *The UK is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and theQueen as Head of State.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the **Americandream». Many Americans think that in their country a man may risefrom the lowest to the highest position in th*irland. That was exactly

what Lincoln did.He was born in 1809 in a small farm in Kentucky. When Abrahamwas quite young, the family moved to the wild forest land of Indiana. He

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hardly had any education; he only learned to read and write and dosimple arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and went toSpringfield, Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hardto improve his education. In 1836 he became a lawyer.

He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to theParliament of Illinois. He soon became a force in the political life. In1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly (NationalParliament).

Slavery was then becoming a burning questions American politics.Many people in the Northern states wanted to abolish it, the Southern states

opposed the abolition. The Southerners said that it would mean economicruin for them. The reason was that the prosperity of the South was based on

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